James Long, leader of the Long expedition,qv was born in Culpeper County, Virginia, probably in 1793. He was taken by his parents to Kentucky and then to Tennessee. He joined the United States Army to serve as a surgeon in the War of 1812 and after the battle of New Orleans went to Natchez, Mississippi, practiced medicine at Port Gibson, and, at the suggestion of his wife, Jane Herbert Wilkinson Long,qv bought a plantation near Vicksburg. In 1817 he was associated with W. W. Walker in the merchandising business. Two years later the Adams-Onís Treatyqv aroused such strong opposition in Natchez that prominent citizens planned a filibustering expedition to conquer Texas and placed Long in command. After the final surrender of the expedition, Long was imprisoned for a time in San Antonio and in Monterrey, Nuevo León. He went to Mexico City in March 1822 to plead his case before Agustín de Iturbide,qv but on April 8, 1822, he was shot and killed by a guard. The shooting was said to be an accident, but there was some evidence that the guard had been hired by José Félix Trespalaciosqv to kill Long.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Anne A. Brindley, "Jane Long," Southwestern Historical Quarterly 56 (October 1952). John Henry Brown, History of Texas from 1685 to 1892 (2 vols., St. Louis: Daniell, 1893). Lois A. Garver, "Benjamin Rush Milam," Southwestern Historical Quarterly 38 (October 1934, January 1935). Lois A. Garver, The Life of Benjamin Rush Milam (M.A. thesis, University of Texas, 1931). Mattie Austin Hatcher, "Letters of Antonio Martínez, the Last Spanish Governor of Texas, 1817-1822," Southwestern Historical Quarterly 39 (July, October 1935, January, April 1936). Harris Gaylord Warren, The Sword Was Their Passport: A History of American Filibustering in the Mexican Revolution (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1943).
Harris Gaylord Warren
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